Secondary Pulmonary Fibrosis
Pulmonary fibrosis is a respiratory disease that occurs when the skin tissue inside the lung becomes thick, stiff and scarred.
There are two forms of pulmonary fibrosis: the idiopathic form, for which has not yet been found a precise cause for the occurrence, and the secondary form, for which, however, have identified several factors.
Typical symptoms of lung fibrosis are shortness of breath, dry cough, weight loss and fatigue.
The diagnosis requires a fairly long process, consisting of several exams and tests.
Unfortunately, it is impossible to recover from pulmonary fibrosis. The only treatments now available are used to relieve symptoms and improve the quality of life of patients.
What is pulmonary fibrosis?
Pulmonary fibrosis is a respiratory disease, characterized by hardening and scarring of lung tissue that surrounds and is interposed between the cavities.
A lung fibrosis affection is therefore a little elastic lung, hard, and covered with retracting scars that “crush” the alveoli, preventing normal breathing.
What are cavities?
The alveoli are small cavities in the lungs, where take place the exchange of gas between blood and atmosphere. Inside of them, in fact, the blood is enriched with oxygen contained in the air breathed and is “free” of the carbon dioxide from the tissues discarded, after their spraying.
Pulmonary fibrosis can occur without a reason or for well-defined reasons; in the first case we speak of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, in the second of secondary pulmonary fibrosis.
PULMONARY FIBROSIS IDIOPATHIC
In medicine, a disease is called idiopathic when it arises without an identifiable cause.
Researchers have proposed various theories about the causes of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, but none of these, so far, has been demonstrated with sufficient scientific evidence.
Most of the inquiries concerned:
The cigarette smoke.
Details viral infections, incurred by the Epstein-Barr or Hepatitis C.
Powders of coal and metal powders.
Factors of genetic / hereditary nature, related to the transmission of the mutated gene for the so-called surfactant protein C (N.B: the surfactant is an essential substance for the good functioning of the lungs).
SECONDARY PULMONARY FIBROSIS
In medicine, a disease is traversed to the end of the secondary when it appears after the occurrence of a particular condition, which can be pathological or non-pathological.
The secondary pulmonary fibrosis may arise due to:
Prolonged exposure in the workplace, to toxic substances. Harmful to lung health: asbestos fibers (which also cause cancer, such as pleural mesothelioma and lung cancer); stone powder, marble and wood, issued by sandblasting; the excrement of some animals and some birds; the dust produced by the stored grain and flour; Finally, the silicon powder.
of anticancer radiotherapy.
Radiation therapy performed for breast tumors and lung can have side effects, especially if it is very prolonged and the amount of ionizing radiation is high. The consequences of radiation therapy can also occur months or years after cancer treatment.
Drugs used for the treatment of cancer (chemotherapy), heart problems and bacterial infections (antibiotics). As hazardous chemotherapy drugs to the lungs, include methotrexate, cyclophosphamide and busulfan.
Among the medicines for cardiac problems, examples are amiodarone (antiarrhythmic) and propranolol (antihypertensive and antiarrhythmic).
Finally, among the antibiotics, they are potentially harmful nitrofurantoin, bleomycin, and sulfasalazine.
Infectious diseases or autoimmune in nature. Infectious diseases associated with pulmonary fibrosis are tuberculosis and pneumonia (either bacterial or viral). Indictees autoimmune diseases, however, are systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, sarcoidosis, Wegener’s granulomatosis and scleroderma.
According to statistical surveys, pulmonary fibrosis is more common among: the elderly; heavy smokers; those who work on farms, mines, steel structures or steel works; those who have undergone radiation therapy for lung cancer or breast cancer; those who used chemotherapy drugs; and finally, individuals with a family history of pulmonary fibrosis.