Mesothelioma And Asbestosis: A Definition
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Does exposure to asbestos cause that awful disease? Yes. Mesothelioma is caused by asbestos fibers, which are impervious to fire. They build up in the body over time and cause the cancer known as mesothelioma because they eat away at the body’s protective mesothelial tissue, which covers the heart and other organs.
Mesotheliomas are a very rare tumor disease of the mesothelial tissue. The mesothelium is a two-layered membrane surrounding the internal organs. Between these two layers there is a small amount of liquid so that the organs can slide past each other as they move. When the cells of the mesothelium, the mesotheliia degenerate and become malignant, a malignant mesothelioma arises.
Mesotheliomas can develop from the mesothelium of the pleural pleura, the peritoneum, the tunica vaginalis testis, and the pericardium.
Approximately 90% of the diseases are malignant pleural mesotheliomas, less than 10% of the diseases are due to the peritoneum. Malignant pericardial mesotheliomas and malignant mesotheliomas of the tunica vaginalis testis have a frequency of less than 1%.
The first description of a mesothelioma was made in 1767. At the beginning of the last century (1931) the mesothelioma was first classified. A distinction is made between an epithelioid, a sarcomatoid, and a biphasic tumor subtype.
Malignant pleural mesothelioma grows in early stages of development, usually in the form of multiple relatively small nodules, preferably the parietal pleura. In the case of far advanced tumor stages, a tumor plate, up to several centimeters thick, is found, which encases the lungs.
In the case of malignant peritoneal mesothelioma two macroscopic growth patterns are distinguished. On the one hand, the multinodular type occurs with mutually delimitable tumor nodes with diameters ranging from a few millimeters to several centimeters, with the preference for the underfoot and the large net. The diffuse type with formation of plaque-like or extensive thickening of the peritoneum results in a tumor plate up to several centimeters thick, which can wallow the other abdominal organs.
Unfortunately, the diagnosis of a malignant mesothelioma is often made in an advanced stage of the tumor.
In rare tumor diseases, such as malignant mesothelioma, treatment should be carried out in specialized centers with appropriate experience. The diagnosis should also be validated by a medical treatment center with the proper expertise.
What is Asbestos?
Asbestos is a group of fibrous inorganic crystalline minerals, so-called silicates, occurring very naturally in the earth’s crust. Due to their excellent insulation properties and heat resistance, they were used extensively in the industry until the end of the 1970s. In certain regions of the earth, e.g. In Turkey / Central Anatolia, there are also natural environmental pollution caused by asbestos, which can lead to increased occurrence of breast cancer (pleural mesothelioma).
Inhaled asbestos fibers can only be disposed of very slowly after deposition (deposition) in the respiratory tract (respiratory tract). They cause pulmonary fibrosis in the pulmonary fibrosis and have also carcinogenic properties. In addition to lung cancer and lung cancer, breast cancer is the most common asbestos-related cancer disease recognized as occupational disease. In the following, an overview of the asbestos-induced malignant diseases of the lung and the riboid (pleura) and its diagnostics and therapy are given Focus on breast cancer (malignant pleural mesothelioma).
Asbestos is a substance belonging to the category of fibers. They are elongated bodies in which the length is larger than the width. We have two distinct types of fibers, natural ones, that is, that are found in nature (asbestos, zeolite, sepiolite) and artificial ones (slag wool, rock wool, ceramic fibers), which are mineral fibers, man-made through of technological processes, and which today have almost been completely replaced.
WHY IS IT DANGEROUS?
Asbestos not only causes asbestosis, but also other diseases, some of which are very serious.
Its handling and installation determine the release of fibers, which can become airborne and – once that makes contact with us – penetrate and progress along the airways.
Asbestos, therefore, given the size of its fibers, is a substance that is dangerously easy to inhale. These fibers are also bio-resistant, ie, before being destroyed by the body with which they come into contact, they need a long time, so they can cause damage.
Asbestos was widely used, especially years ago, because it is resistant to fire, it is an excellent sound-absorbing, and is also a dielectric. Its acid resistance properties, microorganisms and wear, its flexibility and the ability to be “woven” into very ductile structures, make it very used at the industrial level. For example, we can find it in railway cars, ships, in the asbestos-cement and in the textile industry.
Types of asbestos
There are different types of asbestos, which cause different types of diseases. Its fibers, for simplicity can be divided into two large groups:
• serpentine group: is represented by chrysotile (white asbestos or gray), and is much more used than other types of asbestos. In fact, it corresponds to about 93% of world production, and this is good because it is less harmful than the second group. It is produced mainly in South Africa, the Russian Federation, Canada, Yugoslavia, Europe (Corsica, and more than half only in Italy, especially near Turin).
• amphibole group:
Crocidolite, or blue asbestos = iron silicate. The most dangerous of all. It is of Australian origin, and was used in England for the construction of gas masks for military use.
Amosite or brown asbestos = iron and magnesium silicate. Dangerous, but less of crocidolite. It trovavanegli employees to shipyards in the USA and Canada.
Anthophyllite = magnesium silicate
Tremolite = magnesium and calcium silicate. Used in Turkey as a material for building houses.
Actinolite = calcium silicate, magnesium and iron.
Routes of Exposure and Causes
Exposure to asbestos was surveyed and examined in about 3,000 kinds of activities. The main ones are:
Extraction of asbestos fibers from mines and quarries;
the concrete industry;
paper industry (asbestos cartons): paper, coatings stoves, heaters, cabins, film production;
Textile industry: clothing, flame retardant fabrics, such as the theater curtains;
Industry of friction materials (rolling stock, train, ships) and the production of brakes and clutches (especially elevators);
Chemical industry: production of filters;
thermal and acoustic insulation industry;
Asbestos-cement pipes for pipelines and construction industry (roofs, chimneys, pipes).
We must point out that there are countless types of asbestos exposure, not as frequent as those mentioned above and defined for that reason “unusual.” Sources of contamination do not work may be due to the proximity of places of production, for use in old houses and workshops of asbestos structures, brought home on the clothing fibers by miners or industrial workers, and environmental contamination.